Dark mode
Ukraine
Catalog   /   Computing   /  Desktop PCs
Desktop PCs 

Articles, reviews, useful tips

All materials
12.2022
Rating desktop pcs (december)
The popularity rating of desktop pcs is based on comprehensive statistics on the interest shown by the Internet audience
Затащат любую катку: 5 гаджетов для киберспортсмена
Игровые устройства, способные повысить скилл в Dota 2 и CSGO
New people's favorite? Overview of the NVIDIA RTX 3050 graphics card
Testing the first entry-level graphics card with support for ray tracing and artificial DLSS scaling
ТОП-5 доступных корпусов под игровой ПК
Корпус игрового ПК должен смотреться круто, но не обязан стоить, как новая видеокарта
Finish him! ТОП-5 беспроводных геймпадов для ПК
Пятерка прокачанных геймпадов для ПК, которые не подведут во время спарринга в FIFA или Mortal Kombat

Desktop PCs: specifications, types

Product type

The general type of computer. In addition to classic desktop models (including gaming purposes), more unusual solutions are also found nowadays: monoblocks, nettops, microcomputers. Here are the features of each type:

— Desktop. Traditional desktop PCs, in other words, models that do not fit into any of the more specific categories. For the most part, they are not even desktop, but rather "below the table" — they are carried out in vertical cases, most often placed under the tabletop, horizontal system units are extremely rare among such devices.

— Game. A variety of desktop computers, designed for professional players and gamers-enthusiasts. Such models are necessarily equipped with a powerful hardware, which allows you to comfortably play even demanding modern games. In addition, they often provide various additional features that are useful for specialization: built-in overclocking tools, high-end customizable cooling systems, etc. Another feature of gaming PCs is a distinctive design, often quite original: in an “aggressive” style, with backlight, unusual body shape, transparent inserts, etc.

— Monoblock. Monoblocks are devices that combine a screen, system unit electronics, a set of connectors and acoustics in one case; in other words, these are monitors wit...h built-in computer “hardware”. This design has two main advantages. Firstly, the system initially has a display, and it is quite large and optimally suited to its configuration — so the user does not need to look for a separate screen. Secondly, such a computer takes up very little space — only slightly more than a monitor with the same screen size; and the absence of a separate system unit can be written down as an advantage. On the other hand, if in a regular PC the “system unit” and the monitor can be selected separately, at your discretion, then in monoblocks this is not possible — you have to get by with the combinations that the manufacturer initially offers. In addition, the possibilities for modification and upgrade for such models are noticeably more modest than for traditional ones, and there is no talk of replacing the screen at all.

— Nettop. Devices also known as "mini PCs". They are small and modestly equipped — in particular, a very limited set of ports. In addition, many nettops do not differ in performance and are designed mainly for working with documents, surfing the Internet and other simple tasks. However, there are also quite powerful performant solutions. Anyway, the main advantage of the nettop is compactness.

— Microcomputer. As the name suggests, this type of computer is extremely tiny—comparable in size to a flash drive—and looks more like portable adapters for external screens than stand-alone devices. The case of such an “adapter” usually has its own HDMI connector, which is used to connect to a monitor or TV; the same port provides power. And the case most often provides for a “mobile” energy-saving processor with integrated graphics, a compact SSD or eMMC drive, and wireless modules. Peripherals like keyboards and mice are connected mainly via Bluetooth, but many models have wired connectors like USB, and sometimes in quite a decent amount (2 or even 3). In general, such a device can be a good alternative to a tablet or laptop for those who often move between different workplaces — the main thing is that these places have appropriate screens for connection. The power of microcomputers, naturally, is low, but they are not designed for "heavy" tasks.

— Thin client. Thin clients are computers designed to be used in terminal mode for external servers. In this case, all resource-intensive calculations are performed by the server, and the functions of the thin client are limited to entering initial data and receiving results. Most of these computers do not involve independent work at all, but this is not a drawback, but a feature of specialization. In general, this format of work is not used in everyday life and in the ordinary business sphere, but it is perfect for some highly professional tasks. And since the thin client does not need high performance, it can be made as compact, lightweight and inexpensive as possible.

Form factor

The form factor of a computer case characterizes, first of all, the internal volume. Main PC Form Factors:

Midi Tower. A representative of the tower family (tower cases) of medium size — about 45 cm in height with a width of 15-20 cm, with the number of external bays from 2 to 4. Most popular for middle-class home PCs.

Mini Tower. The most compact "vertical" case type, with a width of 15-20 cm, has a height of about 35 cm and (usually) less than 2 compartments with external access. Used mainly for office PCs that do not require high performance.

Desktop. Enclosures designed for installation directly on the desktop. They often have the possibility of horizontal installation — in such a way that a monitor can be placed on top of the case — although there are also models that are installed strictly vertically. Anyway, "desktop" models are relatively small.

Cube Case. Cases having a cubic or close to it shape. They can have different sizes and are intended for different types of motherboards, this point in each case should be clarified separately. Anyway, such cases have a rather original appearance, different from traditional "towers" and "desktops".

Screen size

Diagonal of the screen installed in a monoblock (see "Type").

In general, the larger the diagonal, the more advanced both the screen and the computer as a whole are considered. The large display size is convenient for games, movies, and some special tasks like layout of large printed materials; in addition, a higher resolution can be provided for such a screen, and more space is available inside the case for advanced components. On the other hand, a larger monoblock will cost much more than a relatively small one, even if the other characteristics of such models are completely the same. In addition, the power of the hardware is not directly related to the size of the screen — high-end monoblocks can be quite small.

As for specific numbers, a diagonal of 20" or less is considered very limited nowadays, monoblocks of 21.5" are small, a 24" screen is medium, and values of 27" and 32" indicate large sizes.

Resolution

Resolution of the screen installed in the monoblock (see "Type").

The higher the resolution, the clearer and more detailed image the screen can produce, but the more expensive it is. In addition, high resolutions require corresponding powerful graphics, which further affects the price of the entire computer. The minimum indicator for modern monoblocks is actually 1366x768 — this resolution allows, in particular, to play HD 720p video in proper quality. However, nowadays, the more advanced format is most widely used — Full HD, providing a resolution of 1920x1080. And in high-end monoblocks with a large diagonal and powerful graphics, there are also more solid resolutions — Quad HD(2560x1440, 3440x1440), Ultra HD 4K(3840x2160, 4096x2304) and even 5K(5120x2880) standards.

Panel type

The type of matrix used in the monoblock screen (see "Type").

TN+film. The simplest and most inexpensive type of modern matrices. In addition to low cost, the advantages of TN + Film include good speed (short response time). But the overall picture quality can be described as average: in terms of brightness, colour gamut and colour reproduction quality, screens of this type are noticeably inferior to more advanced options. However this quality is quite enough for relatively simple tasks like surfing the web or working with documents, and in most cases even for playing games and watching movies; however, TN-Film screens are not suitable for professional work with colour.

IPS. A variety of matrices designed for high image quality. In terms of brightness and colour fidelity, such screens are indeed far superior to TN-film, making them excellent for professional use. In addition, these properties are valued among demanding gamers and movie fans. The response time in early versions of IPS screens was quite high, but in modern versions this feature is almost eliminated. But the unequivocal disadvantage of such screens is the rather high cost. Also note that nowadays on the market there are several varieties of IPS, differing in characteristics. For example, E-IPS is a relatively simple and inexpensive option, P-IPS and H-IPS are professional (when they were created, maximum attenti...on was paid to colour reproduction), and AH-IPS was developed with an eye on ultra-high resolution screens. So it would not hurt to clarify the specific features of such a screen separately — especially if a monoblock is bought for design, photo processing and other similar tasks that involve careful work with colour.

— pls. In fact, one of the versions of the IPS technology described above, created by Samsung. During development, special attention was paid to both improving performance and reducing the cost of the matrix; in the end, according to the creators, they really managed to achieve higher brightness and contrast, combined with a lower cost. In general, the characteristics are comparable to mid-level versions of IPS.

*VA. Various versions of VA technology — Fujitsu's MVA, Samsung's PVA and Super PVA, Sharp's ASVA, etc.; In general, there are no key differences in design between these versions. The *VA technology itself was created as a compromise between the speed and affordability of TN-Film matrices and the high-quality "picture" of IPS. The result is screens with more accurate and complete colour reproduction than TN, with good blacks and good viewing angles; the response speed was initially not very high, but in modern versions this drawback has been practically eliminated. At the same time, a feature of *VA screens is that the colour balance of the visible image depends on the viewing angle and changes with the slightest deviation from the perpendicular. With normal PC use, this phenomenon is almost imperceptible, however, such monitors are still poorly suited for professional work with colour.

Surface treatment

Type of own screen cover in monoblock (see "Type").

Glossy. The most common type of coating in modern PCs. Such a surface (with the same characteristics of the matrix) noticeably surpasses the matte one in terms of brightness and colour saturation in the visible image. The main disadvantage of gloss is the tendency to glare in bright ambient light; however, all-in-one PCs are not often used in such conditions, and this phenomenon can be compensated by increasing the brightness of the backlight. With all this, this type of coverage is quite inexpensive.

Glossy (anti-glare). A modified version of the glossy finish (see above) that, as the name suggests, is more resistant to glare. At the same time, in terms of picture quality, such screens are usually not inferior to classic gloss. On the other hand, the anti-reflective surface is somewhat more expensive, and its advantages in this case are not often really significant. Therefore, screens with such a coating are found in modern monoblocks much less often than glossy ones.

Matte. The key advantages of a matte finish are its low cost and the almost complete absence of glare, even in bright ambient light. On the other hand, the image on such a screen is dimmer than on glossy displays (including anti-glare) with similar matrix characteristics. Therefore, this type of coating is rar...ely used nowadays — mainly in relatively inexpensive household and business models, for which a bright picture with saturated colours is not fundamental.

Brightness

The maximum brightness provided by the monoblock screen (see "Type").

The more intense the ambient light, the higher the screen brightness should be for normal visibility. The most "dim" screens in monoblocks are capable of delivering up to 200 cd / m2 — this is more than enough to work under ordinary artificial lighting, but under sunlight it will take at least 300 cd / m2. At the same time, modern monoblocks can also have a larger margin of brightness — in some models up to 500 cd / m2. This expands the possibilities for customizing the screen for different situations and user preferences. In addition, high brightness has a positive effect on image quality and colour saturation, in light of which it is often a sign of a fairly advanced screen.

Contrast

Monoblock native screen contrast (see "Type"). This indicator describes the ratio between the brightest white and the darkest black that the screen is capable of displaying. And the higher this ratio, the higher the quality of the picture, the more reliable the colour reproduction and the better the details in the lightest and darkest areas of the image are visible.

It is worth noting that the real contrast even in professional matrices almost never exceeds 5000:1, however, much higher figures can be given in the characteristics — at the level of 100000000:1 (one hundred million to one), even in relatively inexpensive screens. This means that the manufacturer went to the trick and indicated in the characteristics not static (real), but the so-called dynamic contrast. It describes the difference between the brightest white at maximum brightness and the darkest at minimum; it is unrealistic to achieve such indicators within one frame, so this is more advertising than practically significant information. At the same time, we note that there are "smart" backlight technologies that allow you to change its brightness in certain areas of the screen and achieve a higher contrast in one frame than the claimed static one; these technologies can be used in premium devices.

Touch screen

The presence in the monoblock (see "Type") of the touch screen.

Due to this function, the user receives an additional way to control — by touching the display. In some tasks — for example, layout or working with maps — this method can be a good addition, and sometimes a full-fledged alternative to traditional keyboards and mice. On the other hand, it's not often that there's a real need for touch controls in desktop computers; But using it is not as convenient as on the same tablet. Therefore, there are few monoblocks with this feature.

Curved screen

Presence in a monoblock (see "Type") of a curved screen; the edges of such a screen are bent towards the user. It is believed that this form improves the perception of the image and enhances the effect of immersion — due to the fact that the visible picture is obtained as close as possible to the natural field of view. This is especially true in games and when watching movies, so curved screens are found mainly in advanced multimedia gaming models. The disadvantages of curved screens, in addition to high cost, are additional restrictions for the viewer: he must be exactly opposite the centre of the screen, at a certain distance, otherwise the image is distorted. However, this moment becomes critical only if there are several people behind the monitor.

Slim bezel

The presence of a thin frame in the monoblock's own screen (see "Type"). More precisely, we are talking about the top and sides of the frame; the lower part inevitably turns out to be quite wide, this is due to the technical features of this type of PC. However, even this layout significantly improves the overall impression of the image: due to the peculiarities of human vision, it seems that the “picture” occupies the entire front panel of the device, and the frame is almost invisible. On the other hand, such screens are not cheap.

3D

The ability to work with a screen installed in a monoblock with a 3D image.

In this case, “3D” in the modern sense is meant: a stereo image perceived as a fully three-dimensional image. This effect is based on the difference in images received by the left and right eyes, 3D viewing usually requires special glasses — and, of course, the corresponding content.

Note that this feature was not initially popular in monoblocks, and now it is almost never found in new devices. This is due to a number of reasons, including the high cost of screens and demanding video cards.

Chipset

The model of the chipset used in the standard configuration of the PC.

A chipset can be described as a set of chips that provides the combined operation of the central processor, RAM, I / O devices, etc. It is this chipset that underlies any motherboard. Knowing the chipset model, you can find and evaluate its detailed characteristics; most users do not need such information, but for specialists it can be very useful.

Type

The general type (specialization) of the processor installed in the PC.

Desktop. Processors originally designed for full-sized desktop computers. The specific characteristics of such CPUs can vary quite widely; however, in general, they have higher processing power than mobile chips, as well as a wider range of additional features and special solutions to improve efficiency. And with the same actual performance, desktop solutions are much cheaper than mobile ones. The downside of these advantages is the relatively high energy consumption and heat dissipation. However, for full-sized PCs, these shortcomings are not critical, so almost all traditional desktop computers, as well as most all-in-ones (see "Type") are equipped with this particular type of processor; and for powerful gaming models, a desktop CPU is mandatory by definition. On the other hand, this category also includes rather economical and "cold" low-power chips, which are suitable for compact computers that do not require high performance, such as nettops and thin clients.

Mobile. This term in this case refers to processors originally designed for laptops. Most of these CPUs use the same basic architecture as desktop models — x86. Their main differences are: on the one hand, reduced energy consumption, reduced clock frequencies and low heat generation, on the other hand, less computing power in general. However th...e actual characteristics of such processors may vary from model to model, some laptop solutions are not inferior to fairly advanced desktop ones; however, with similar capabilities, a laptop processor will cost significantly more. Thus, this type of CPU is mainly used in nettops and individual models of monoblocks (see "Type"), where it is difficult to use powerful cooling systems.
A rarer variety of mobile processors used in modern PCs are chips based on the basic ARM architecture. Such processors have even lower heat dissipation and power, and are also often implemented in the System-On-Chip format, when the CPU itself, RAM, wired and wireless connection controllers, and other components are combined in one chip. ARM solutions can be found in Android touchscreen all-in-ones (which are effectively "desktop tablets"), as well as in individual thin clients.

Series

The series of processor installed in the PC.

The main manufacturers of processors nowadays are Intel and AMD, also in 2020, Apple introduced its M1 series CPUs (with further development as M1 Max and M1 Ultra). The list of current Intel series includes Atom, Celeron, Pentium, Core i3, Core i5, Core i7, Core i9 and Xeon. For AMD, in turn, this list looks like this: AMD Athlon, AMD FX, Ryzen 3, Ryzen 5, Ryzen 7 and Ryzen Threadripper.

In general, each series includes processors of different generations, similar in general level and positioning. Here is a more detailed description of each of the options described above:

— Atom. Processors originally designed for mobile devices. Accordingly, they are distinguished by compactness, high energy efficiency and low heat dissipation, but they “do not shine” with performance. Perfect for microcomputers (see "Type"), among the more "large-format" systems are extremely rare — mostly in the most modest configurations.

— Celeron. Low-cost-level processors, the most simple and inexpensive consumer-level desktop chips from Intel, with the appropriate characteristics.

— Pentium. A family of low-cost desktop processors from Intel that is slightly more advanced than Celeron, but inferior to models from the Core i* series.

— Core i3. The simplest and most inexpensive series of desktop Core chips from Intel includes chips of the low-cost and inexpensive middle class, which, nevertheless, surpass Celerons and Pentiums in terms of performance.

— Core i5. Medium-level family among Intel Core processors; and in general, the chips of this series can be attributed to the average level by the standards of desktop systems.

— Core i7. A series of high-performance processors that has long been the top among Core chips; only in 2017 did it lose this position to the i9 family. However, the presence of an i7 processor still means a fairly powerful and advanced configuration; in particular, such CPUs are found in premium-level monoblocks, and are also quite popular in gaming systems.

— Core i9. The top series among Core processors, the most powerful among general purpose Intel desktop chips. In particular, the number of cores even in the most modest models is at least 6. Such chips are used mainly in gaming PCs.

— Xeon. High-end Intel processors, the capabilities of which go beyond the standard desktop chips. Designed for specialized applications, among PCs they are found mainly in powerful workstations.

— AMD FX. A family of processors from AMD, positioned as high-performance and at the same time inexpensive solutions, including for gaming systems. Interestingly, some models come standard with liquid cooling.

— Ryzen 3. AMD Ryzen chips (all series) are promoted as high-end solutions for gamers, developers, graphic designers and video editors. It was among these chips that AMD pioneered the Zen microarchitecture, which introduced simultaneous multithreading, which made it possible to significantly increase the number of operations per clock at the same clock frequency. And Ryzen 3 is the most inexpensive and modest family among the "ryzens" in terms of characteristics. Such processors are produced using the same technologies as the older series, however, half of the computing cores are deactivated in Ryzen 3. Nevertheless, this line includes quite performant models, designed, among other things, for gaming configurations and workstations.

— Ryzen 5. A family related to the middle level among Ryzen processors. The second series on this architecture, released in April 2017 as a more affordable alternative to Ryzen 7 chips. Ryzen 5 chips have slightly more modest performance characteristics (in particular, lower clock speeds and, in some models, L3 cache size). Otherwise, they are completely similar to the "sevens" and are also positioned as high-performance chips for gaming and workstations.

— Ryzen 7. Historically the first series of AMD processors based on the Zen microarchitecture (for more details, see "Ryzen 3" above). One of the older families among the "ryzens", in terms of performance it is second only to the Threadripper line; many PCs based on these chips are gaming.

— Ryzen Threadripper. Specialized Hi-End processors designed for maximum performance. They are mainly installed in gaming systems and workstations.

— Apple M1. A series of processors from Apple introduced in November 2020. They belong to mobile solutions (see "Type" above), are performed according to the system-on-chip scheme: a single module combines a CPU, a graphics adapter, RAM (in the first models — 8 or 16 GB), an NVMe solid-state drive and some other components (specifically Thunderbolt 4 controllers). Accordingly, among PCs, the main scope of such chips are compact nettops. As for the characteristics, in the initial configurations, the M1 processors are equipped with 8 cores — 4 performant and 4 economical; the latter, according to the creators, consume 10 times less energy than the former. This, combined with the 5nm process technology, has made it possible to achieve very high energy efficiency and at the same time performance.

— Apple M1 Max. An uncompromisingly powerful SoC with a focus on maximizing Apple desktop productivity for complex tasks. The Apple M1 Max line was introduced in the fall of 2021, it debuted on board Mac Studio computers.

Apple M1 Max consists of 10 cores: 8 of them are productive, and 2 more are energy efficient. The maximum amount of built-in combined memory reaches 64 GB, the “ceiling” of its bandwidth is 400 GB / s. The graphics performance of the Max version of the M1 single-chip system is about twice that of the Apple M1 Pro. The chip contains over 57 billion transistors. An additional accelerator for the professional ProRes video codec has also been introduced into its design, which allows you to easily play multiple streams of high-quality ProRes video in 4K and 8K frame resolutions.

— Apple M1 Ultra. Formally, the M1 Ultra chip consists of two Apple M1 Max processors on a single UltraFusion substrate, which allows information transfer at speeds up to 2.5 Tbps. In the language of "dry" numbers, this bundle consists of 20 ARM computing cores (16 high-performance and 4 energy efficient), a 64-core graphics subsystem and a 32-core neural computing unit. The system-on-chip supports up to 128 GB of combined memory. About 114 billion transistors are packed into the processor package. The main purpose of the Apple M1 Ultra is to confidently work with complex resource-intensive applications in the manner of processing 8K video or 3D rendering. In life, the processor can be found on board Mac Studio desktop computers.

In addition to the series described above, in modern PCs you can find the following processors:

AMD Fusion A4.... The entire Fusion processor family was originally created as integrated graphics devices, combining a central processing unit and a graphics card in one chip; such chips are called APU — Accelerated Processing Unit. Series with the index "A" are equipped with the most powerful integrated graphics in the family, which in some cases can compete on equal terms with inexpensive discrete video cards. The higher the number in the series index, the more advanced it is; A4 is the most modest series among Fusion A.

AMD Fusion A6. A series of processors from the Fusion A line, relatively modest, but somewhat more advanced than the A4. For common features of all Fusion A, see "AMD Fusion A4" above.

AMD Fusion A8. A rather advanced series of Fusion A processors, the middle option between the relatively modest A4 and A6 and the high-end A10 and A12. For common features of all Fusion A, see "AMD Fusion A4" above.

— AMD Fusion A9. Another advanced series from the Fusion A family, slightly inferior only to the A10 and A12 series. For common features of all Fusion A, see "AMD Fusion A4" above.

AMD Fusion A10. One of the top series in the Fusion A line. See "AMD Fusion A4" above for general features of this line.

— AMD Fusion A12. The top series in the APU Fusion A line, introduced in 2015; positioned as professional-level processors with advanced (even by APU standards) graphics capabilities. For general features of the Fusion A range, see "AMD Fusion A4" above.

— AMD E-series. This series of processors belongs to the APU, like the Fusion A described above, however, it is fundamentally different in specialization: the main scope of the E-Series are compact devices, in the case of PCs, mostly nettops (see "Type"). Accordingly, these processors have compactness, low heat dissipation and power consumption, but their computing power is also low.

— Athlon X4. A series of low-cost consumer-level processors, originally released in 2015 as relatively inexpensive and at the same time relatively performant solutions for the FM + socket.

— AMD G. A family of ultra-compact and energy-efficient processors from AMD, made on the principle of "system on a chip" (SoC). Unlike many similar chips, it uses the x86 architecture, not ARM. Positioned as a solution for devices with an emphasis on graphics, in particular, gaming. However, we are not talking about gaming PCs: like most processors of a similar "weight category", AMD G is found mainly in thin clients (see "Type").

— VIA. Processors from the company of the same name, mainly related to energy-efficient "mobile" solutions — in particular, many VIA models are directly compared with Intel Atom. However, despite the modest performance, such CPUs are found even among desktop systems; and in the future, the company plans to create full-fledged desktop chips, competing with AMD and Intel.

— ARM Cortex-A. A group of processors from ARM, the creator of the microarchitecture of the same name and the largest manufacturer of chips based on it. A feature of this microarchitecture compared to the classic x86 is the so-called reduced instruction set (RISC): The processor operates with a simplified instruction set. This somewhat limits the functionality, but allows you to create more compact, "cold" and at the same time performant chips. For a number of reasons, the ARM architecture is mainly used in "mobile" processors designed for smartphones, tablets, etc. This is also true for the ARM Cortex-A series; in PCs, such CPUs are rarely installed, and usually we are talking about a compact, modest device like a “thin client” (see “Type”).

— Nvidia Tegra. Initially, these processors were created for portable devices, but recently they have also been installed in PCs, mainly in monoblocks. They are "system-on-chip" devices that do not use the "desktop" x86 architecture, but the "mobile" ARM architecture, which requires the use of appropriate operating systems; the most commonly used is Android (see "Preinstalled OS").

— Armada. Another type of ARM architecture processors, positioned as high-performance solutions for cloud computing and home servers, including NAS. It is found in single models of "thin clients" (see "Type").

— Tera. A specialized family of processors designed specifically for "thin clients" (see "Type") and fundamentally different from classic CPUs (both full-size and compact). Tera-based systems are usually full-fledged "zero clients" (zero client), absolutely not capable of autonomous operation. In other words, these are devices designed to create a "virtual desktop": the user works with the interface and terminal equipment (monitor, keyboard, mouse, etc.), but all operations take place on the server. This allows you to provide increased security when working with sensitive data. But in more traditional PCs, Tera processors are practically inapplicable.

Of the outdated series of processors that can still be found in use (but not for sale), we can mention the Sempron, Phenom II and Athlon II from AMD, as well as the Core 2 Quad and Core 2 Duo from Intel.

Note that on the market there are configurations that are not equipped with a processor — in the expectation that the user can pick it up on his own; however, this is a rather rare option.

Model

The specific model of the processor installed in the PC, or rather, its index within its series (see "Processor"). The full model name consists of the series name and this index — for example, Intel Core i3 3220; knowing this name, you can find detailed information about the processor (characteristics, reviews, etc.) and determine how suitable it is for your purposes.

Code name

The code name for the processor that the PC is equipped with.

This parameter characterizes, first of all, the generation to which the processor belongs, and the microarchitecture used in it. At the same time, chips with different code names can belong to the same microarchitecture/generation; in such cases, they differ in other parameters — general positioning, belonging to certain series (see above), the presence / absence of certain specific functions, etc.

Nowadays, chips with the following code names are relevant among Intel processors: Coffee Lake (8th generation), Coffee Lake (9th generation), Comet Lake (10th generation) and Rocket Lake (11th generation). For AMD, the list looks like this: Zen+ Picasso (3rd gen), Zen2 Matisse (3rd gen), Zen2 Renoir (4th gen), Zen 3 Cezanne (5th gen), Zen 3 Vermeer (5th gen).

Cores

The number of cores in a complete PC processor.

The core is a part of the processor designed to process one stream of commands (and sometimes more, for such cases, see "Number of threads"). Accordingly, the presence of several cores allows the processor to work simultaneously with several such threads, which has a positive effect on performance. However note that a larger number of cores does not always mean higher computing power — a lot depends on how the interaction between command streams is organized, what special technologies are implemented in the processor, etc. So, only chips of the same purpose (desktop, mobile) and similar series (see "Processor") can be compared by the number of cores.

In general, single-core processors are practically not found in modern PCs. Mainly desktop chips of the initial and middle level are made dual-core. Four cores are found both in desktop CPUs of the middle and advanced class, and in mobile solutions. And six-core and eight-core processors are typical for high-performance desktop processors used in workstations and gaming systems.

Threads

The number of threads supported by the bundled PC processor.

A thread in this case is a sequence of instructions executed by the kernel. Initially, each individual core is able to work with only one such sequence. However, among modern CPUs, more and more often there are models in which the number of threads is twice the number of cores. This means that the processor uses multi-threading technology, and each core works with two instruction sequences: when pauses occur in one thread, the core switches to another, and vice versa. This allows you to significantly increase performance without increasing the clock frequency and heat dissipation, however, such CPUs are also more expensive than single-threaded counterparts.

Speed

The clock speed of the processor installed in the PC.

Nowadays, a frequency of 2 Hz or less is considered relatively low, from 2.1 to 2.5 Hz — medium, 2.6 – 3 Hz — above average, more than 3 Hz — high. However, it should be noted that this indicator is rather weakly related to the actual performance of the processor. The fact is that the actual capabilities of the CPU are highly dependent on a number of other factors — the overall architecture (x86, ARM), cache size, number of cores, support for special instructions, etc. As a result, only chips from one or from similar series (see "Processor"), and even then quite approximately.

TurboBoost / TurboCore

Processor clock speed when running in TurboBoost or TurboCore mode.

Turbo Boost technology is used in Intel processors, Turbo Core — AMD. The essence of this technology is the same both there and there: if some of the cores work under high load, and some are idle, then some tasks are transferred from more loaded cores to less loaded ones, which improves performance. This usually increases the clock frequency of the processor; this value is indicated in this paragraph. See above for more information on clock speed in general.

TurboBoost Max 3.0

Processor clock speed when running in TurboBoost Max 3.0 overclocking mode.

This mode is a kind of add-on over the original Turbo Boost (see above). The basic principle of its operation is that the most critical and "heavy" tasks are sent for execution to the fastest and most unloaded processor cores. This provides additional optimization of the CPU and increases its speed. As in normal Turbo Boost mode, the clock speed increases when using this function, so it is indicated separately.

L2 cache

The amount of cache memory level 2 (L2) in the complete PC processor.

The cache is an intermediate memory buffer into which the most frequently used data from the "RAM" is written during the operation of the processor. This has a positive effect on system performance. The larger the cache, the more data can be stored in it for quick access and the higher the performance (ceteris paribus). As for the level, the higher it is, the larger and slower the cache. Thus, the L2 cache occupies an intermediate position between the small and fast L1 cache and the large but relatively slow L3 cache. The minimum size of this buffer in modern PC processors is 512 KB, in most models this figure does not exceed 8 MB, however, there are chips with an L2 cache of 16 MB or even more.

L3 cache

The amount of cache memory level 3 (L3) in the complete PC processor.

The cache is an intermediate memory buffer into which, when the processor is running, the most frequently used data from the "RAM" is written. This has a positive effect on system performance. The larger the cache, the more data can be stored in it for quick access and the higher the performance (ceteris paribus). As for the level, the higher it is, the larger and slower the cache. The third cache level is the highest, respectively, the most voluminous and the slowest. Its minimum volume in modern PCs is about 2 MB, and the most advanced processors can have 20 – 30 MB of L3 cache.

Passmark CPU Mark

The result shown by the PC processor in the test (benchmark) Passmark CPU Mark.

Passmark CPU Mark is a comprehensive test that allows you to evaluate CPU performance in various modes and with a different number of processed threads. The results are displayed in points; the more points, the higher the overall performance of the processor. For comparison: as of 2020, in low-cost solutions, the results are measured in hundreds of points, in mid-range models they range from 800 – 900 to more than 6,000 points, and individual top-end chips are capable of showing 40,000 points or more.

Geekbench 4

The result shown by the PC processor in the test (benchmark) Geekbench 4.

Geekbench 4 is a comprehensive cross-platform test that allows, among other things, to determine the efficiency of the processor in various modes. At the same time, according to the developers, the verification modes are as close as possible to various real tasks that the processor has to solve. The result is indicated in points: the more points — the more powerful the CPU, while the difference in numbers corresponds to the actual difference in performance ("twice the result — twice the power").

Note that the benchmark in Geekbench 4 is the Intel Core i7-6600U processor with a clock frequency of 2.6 GHz. Its power is estimated at 4000 points, and the performance of other tested CPUs is already compared with it.

Cinebench R15

The result shown by the PC processor in the test (benchmark) Cinebench R15.

Cinebench is a test designed to test the capabilities of the processor and graphics card. The creator of this benchmark, Maxon, is also known as the developer of the Cinema 4D 3D editor; this determined the features of testing. So, in addition to purely mathematical tasks, when using Cinebench R15, the processor is loaded with processing high-quality three-dimensional graphics. Another interesting feature is the extensive support for multithreading — the test allows you to fully check the power of chips that process up to 256 threads at a time.

Traditionally, for processor benchmarks, the test results are indicated in points (more precisely, points — PTS). The more points scored by the CPU, the higher its performance.

RAM

The amount of random access memory (RAM, or RAM) that came with your computer.

The overall performance of the PC directly depends on this parameter: ceteris paribus, more RAM speeds up work, allows you to cope with more resource-intensive tasks, and facilitates the simultaneous execution of numerous processes. As for specific numbers, the minimum volume required for the stable operation of a general-purpose PC nowadays is 4 GB. Smaller amounts are enough for microcomputers and thin clients, and at least 8 GB is installed in gaming systems, on the contrary. 16 GB and even more so 32 GB are already very solid volumes, and in the most powerful and performant systems there are values \u200b\u200bof 64 GB and even more. Also on the market you can find configurations without RAM at all — for such a device, the user can choose the amount of memory at his discretion; for a number of reasons, this configuration is especially popular in nettops.

Note that many modern PCs allow for an increase in the amount of RAM, so it does not always make sense to purchase an expensive device with a large amount of "RAM" — sometimes it is more reasonable to start with a simpler model and expand it if necessary. The possibility of upgrading in such cases should...be clarified separately.

Memory type

The type of RAM used in the computer. This indicator describes both the general level of "RAM" and the possibilities for replacing and upgrading it: different types of RAM are not compatible with each other.

Here are the types of memory that are relevant for modern PCs:

DDR3. The third generation of RAM with the so-called double data transfer. Some time ago, this standard was the most popular in computer technology, but now it is increasingly losing ground to newer and more advanced standards, primarily DDR4. In compact computers, there is a "mobile", energy-saving version of this memory standard — LPDDR3.

DDR3L. A modification of DDR3 memory that supports operation at a reduced voltage — 1.35 V instead of 1.5 V (Low Voltage — hence the index L). Lower voltage improves performance. These modules are compatible with classic DDR3 slots.

DDR4. Further, after DDR3, the development of the DDR standard, released in 2014. It features both increased performance and increased volumes — the capacity of one bar can be from 2 to 128 GB. Thus, the maximum amount of RAM in most PCs is limited more by the capabilities of the motherboard than by the characteristics of existing brackets. DDR4 is very popular in modern computer technology, including desktop PCs.

Speed

The clock speed of the RAM that comes with the PC. This is one of the parameters that determine the capabilities of RAM: with the same amount and type of memory (see above), a higher clock frequency will mean faster performance. However such details are rarely required by an ordinary user, but they are important for enthusiasts and professionals.

Also note that this indicator can be used to determine the possibilities for upgrading the system: the motherboard will be able to work normally with brackets that have the same or lower clock frequency, but compatibility with faster memory should be specified separately.

Number of slots

The number of slots for RAM modules provided on the PC motherboard. In this case, we are talking about slots for removable strips; for a PC with built-in memory, this parameter is irrelevant.

The slots available on the "motherboard" can be occupied all, partially or not occupied at all (in models without RAM). Anyway, you should pay attention to their number if the initially installed amount of RAM does not suit you (or ceases to suit you over time), and you plan to upgrade the system. The smallest amount found in a PC with removable memory is 1 slot ; if it is busy, you will only have to change the bar when upgrading. More connectors for RAM are always paired, this is due to a number of technical nuances; most often this number is 2 or 4, but it can be large — up to 16 in powerful workstations.

Note that when planning an upgrade, you need to take into account not only the number of slots and type of memory (see above), but also the characteristics of the motherboard. All modern "motherboards" have restrictions on the maximum amount of RAM; as a result, for example, the presence of two DDR4 slots does not mean that two strips of maximum capacity can be installed in the system at once, 128 GB each.

Max. memory support

The maximum amount of RAM that can be installed on a computer. It depends, in particular, on the type of memory modules used, as well as on the number of slots for them. Paying attention to this parameter makes sense, first of all, if the PC is bought with the expectation of upgrading RAM and the amount of actually installed memory in it is noticeably less than the maximum available

So the amount of maximum installed memory depends on the number of slots in the PC and can be from 16 GB(a modest PC) to 64 GB and above. The most popular on the market are PCs with a maximum installed 32 GB of memory.

Graphics card type

The type of graphics card used in the PC. Modern computers can be equipped with both integrated modules and discrete video cards (including professional ones), which can be installed in several pieces using SLI or CrossFire technology. In addition, on the market you can find configurations that are not equipped with graphics adapters at all. Here is a more detailed description of each option:

— Integrated. Video cards that are built directly into the processor (less often, into the motherboard) and do not have their own dedicated memory: the memory for video processing is taken from the general “RAM”. The main advantages of such modules are low cost, low power consumption, minimal heat release (which does not require special cooling systems), and extremely compact dimensions. On the other hand, the performance of this type of graphics is low: it is enough for simple everyday tasks like web surfing, watching videos and undemanding games, but for more serious purposes it is still desirable to have a discrete video adapter in the system. And the fact that integrated systems take up part of the system RAM during operation does not contribute to performance either.

— Discrete. Video cards in the form of separate modules with a specialized processor and their own memory. They are noticeably more expensive than integ...rated ones, take up more space and consume more energy, but all these shortcomings are offset by a key advantage — high performance. This allows you to work even with “heavy” graphic content like modern games, 3D rendering, high-resolution video editing, etc. (although the specific characteristics of discrete graphics, of course, may be different). In addition, graphics processing in such systems does not use the main RAM, which is also an important advantage. For additional performance enhancement, discrete video adapters can be combined into SLI / CrossFire systems, this option is indicated separately (see below). Also note that in most modern PCs, such graphics are combined with a processor with an integrated graphics core, and often work in hybrid mode: the integrated module is used for simple tasks, and when the load increases, the system switches to a discrete graphics card.

— SLI/CrossFire. Several discrete video cards (see above) bundled using SLI technology (NVIDIA is used) or Crossfire (AMD is used). From the point of view of an ordinary user, there are no fundamental differences between these technologies: both of them allow you to combine the computing power of several video cards, thus increasing graphics performance. However, such graphics are not cheap, and therefore they are used exclusively in high-performance PCs with an emphasis on graphic capabilities — in particular, gaming ones.

— Sold separately. The absence of any graphics card in the initial configuration of the PC. A rather rare option found in some high-end workstations: such configurations are equipped with professional processors without an integrated graphics core and do not have discrete graphics — it is assumed that such an adapter is more convenient for the user to buy separately.

Graphics card model

The model of the graphics card installed in the PC. Recall that many configurations with discrete graphics also have an integrated graphics module; in such cases, the name of the discrete graphics card is indicated as more advanced.

The main manufacturers of graphics cards nowadays are AMD, NVIDIA and Intel, and each has its own specifics. NVIDIA releases predominantly discrete solutions; among the most common are the GeForce MX1xx, GeForce MX3xx, GeForce GTX 10xx series(in particular GTX 1050, GTX 1050 Ti and GTX 1060), GeForce GTX 16xx, GeForce RTX 20xx, GeForce RTX 30xx (GeForce RTX 3060, GeForce RTX 3060 Ti, GeForce RTX 3070, GeForce RTX 3070 Ti, GeForce RTX 3080, GeForce RTX 3080 Ti, GeForce RTX 3090, GeForce RTX 3090 Ti) and a separ...ate Quadro series. AMD offers both discrete and integrated graphics, including under the popular Radeon RX 500, Radeon RX 5000, Radeon RX 6000, and AMD Radeon Pro series. And Intel deals exclusively with modules integrated into processors of its own production — these can be HD Graphics, UHD Graphics and Iris.

Graphics memory

The amount of native memory provided by the discrete graphics card (see "Graphics card type").

The larger this volume, the more powerful and advanced the video adapter is, the better it handles with complex tasks and, accordingly, the more expensive it is. Nowadays, 2 GB and 3 GB are considered quite modest, 4 GB are not bad, 6 GB and 8 GB are very solid, and more than 8 GB means that we have a specialized PC built for maximum graphics performance.

Memory type

The type of graphics memory used by the discrete graphics card (see "Video Card Type").

In most of these adapters, GDDR graphics memory is installed — a kind of regular DDR "RAM", optimized for use with graphics tasks. This memory is available on the market in several versions; in addition, there are other varieties. Here is a more detailed description of the different options:

— GDDR3. At one time — a fairly common type of graphic memory; today, however, it is considered obsolete and is not used in new PCs.

— GDDR5. The most popular (for 2020) type of GDDR graphic memory. At a reasonable cost, it provides good performance, due to which it is found in computers of different price categories.

— GDDR5X. Modification of the above-mentioned GDDR5, characterized by a 2-fold increased throughput. Accordingly, the performance of such memory (with the same volumes) is noticeably higher; on the other hand, such modules are expensive.

— GDDR6. The newest of the GDDR standards for 2020 — the first video cards based on this type of memory were introduced in 2018. It differs from its immediate predecessor — GDDR5X — in both increased bandwidth and lower operating voltage, which provides both increased efficiency and reduced power consumption. It is also worth noting that GDDR6 was developed with specific applications in mind, such as VR or work with resolutions above 4K UHD.

— HBM2. The original HBM is a type of RAM d...esigned to maximize the speed of data exchange; HBM2 is the second version of this technology, in which the bandwidth compared to the original HBM has been doubled. Such a memory is fundamentally different from DDR in terms of device — in particular, the memory cells in it are placed in layers and allow simultaneous access. Thanks to this, HBM is several times faster than the fastest versions of GDDR, which makes this technology perfect for high workloads such as processing UltraHD graphics and virtual reality. At the same time, the clock frequency of such modules is low and, accordingly, power consumption and heat dissipation are small. The disadvantage of this option is traditional — the high price.

— DDR3. Memory that does not have a specialization for graphics — in other words, the same DDR3 that is used in RAM sticks (see "Memory Type" above). In the case of video cards, such solutions are completely obsolete and are almost never used nowadays.

VR

Support for virtual reality technologies by a PC graphics card, in other words, the ability to use VR glasses and helmets with a computer. Such equipment gives a powerful effect of immersion in what is happening — the image in front of the eyes changes when the head moves, as if the user is looking at it live. However, processing such graphics requires high performance, as well as support for some special technologies. So if you intend to use VR, you should choose a system for which this feature is directly stated.

VR support is found primarily in professional gaming PCs, but it can also be useful for developers involved in VR applications.

3DMark

The result shown by the PC graphics card in the 3DMark test (benchmark).

3DMark is a specialized test designed primarily to test the performance and stability of a graphics card in demanding games. The verification is carried out by running 3D videos created on various game engines using various technologies. The final result is evaluated both in terms of frame rate and in conditional points; in this paragraph, just the number of points is given. The higher it is, the more powerful and performant the graphics card is.

Note that 3DMark testing can be carried out for any type of graphics (see "Graphics card type"). At the same time (as of 2020) in integrated solutions, the final result rarely exceeds 1000 points; the most modest indicator for discrete adapters is about 1700 points; and in some high-end graphics cards, it can exceed 10,000 points.

Passmark G3D Mark

The result shown by the PC graphics card in the test (benchmark) Passmark G3D Mark.

Passmark G3D Mark is a comprehensive test to check the performance of a graphics card in various modes. Traditionally for such tests results are displayed in points, more points mean (proportionately) higher computing power. However, note that the graphics card is tested in different modes, and the final score is derived based on several results in specialized tests. Therefore, adapters with a similar overall result may differ slightly in actual performance in certain specific formats of operation. So if a PC is purchased for professional work with graphics, and high efficiency in some specialized tasks is critical, it will not hurt to clarify these nuances separately.

Note that with the help of Passmark G3D Mark, nowadays, all types of graphics adapters are tested (see "Graphics card type"). At the same time, for integrated solutions, a result of more than 1200 points is considered very good, and in discrete models this figure can vary from 2200 – 2300 points to 20,000 points or more.

Sold Separately

The absence of any drive in the PC package. This option is useful for those who would like to complete the system on their own, without relying on the choice of the manufacturer: after all, when purchasing a drive separately, you can choose not only its type and volume (see both points below), but even a specific model. Also, such a configuration will be useful if you already have a drive for the desired system — for example, a hard drive from a previous computer. By installing it, you can not overpay for an additional HDD or SSD.

Drive type

The type of storage device that is installed in the computer.

Note that many PCs allow you to add a complete drive or even completely replace it, but it is more convenient to buy a suitable configuration initially and not bother with re-equipment. In terms of types, traditional hard disk drives ( HDD) are increasingly losing ground to SSD solid-state modules nowadays. In addition, HDD + SSD combinations are quite popular (including those using advanced Intel Optane and Fusion Drive technologies). But solutions such as SSHD and eMMC have practically fallen into disuse. Let's take a closer look at these options:

— HDD. Classic hard disk. The key advantage of such drives is their low cost per unit of volume — this allows you to create capacious and at the same time inexpensive storage. On the other hand, HDDs are noticeably inferior to SSDs in terms of speed, and they also do not tolerate shocks and shocks. Thus, this type of media is less and less used in its pure form — it is much more common to find a combination of a hard drive with an SSD module (see below).

— SSD. Solid state drives based on flash memory. With the same volume, an SSD is much more expensive than an HDD, but this is justified by a number of advantages. First, such drives are much faster than hard...drives; specific performance may be different (depending on the type of memory, connection interface, etc.), however, even inexpensive SSDs outperform advanced HDDs in this indicator. Secondly, solid-state memory has no moving parts, which offers several advantages at once: lightness, compactness, shock insensitivity and low power consumption. And the cost of such memory is constantly decreasing as technology advances. So more and more modern PCs are equipped with just such drives, and these can be configurations of any level — from low-cost to top ones.

— HDD+SSD. The presence in one system of two drives at once — HDD and SSD. Each of these varieties is described in more detail above; and their combination in one system allows you to combine the advantages and partially compensate for the shortcomings. For example, an SSD (which usually has a fairly small capacity) can store system files and other data for which speed of access is important (for example, work applications); and HDD is well suited for large volumes of information that do not require particularly high speed (a typical case is video files and other multimedia content). In addition, the solid-state module can be used not as a separate storage, but as an intermediate cache to speed up the hard drive; however, this usually requires special software settings (whereas the "two separate drives" mode is most often available by default).
We also emphasize that in this case we are talking about “ordinary” SSD modules that do not belong to the Optane and Fusion Drive series; the features of these series are detailed below.

HDD + Optane. Combination of a traditional hard drive with an Intel Optane series SSD. For more information about the general features of this combination, see "HDD + SSD" above. Here, we note that “optains” differ from other SSD drives in a special three-dimensional structure of memory cells (3D Xpoint technology). This allows you to access data at the level of individual cells and do without some additional operations, which speeds up the speed and reduces latency, and also has a positive effect on memory life. The second difference is that Optane is usually used not as a separate drive, but as an auxiliary buffer (cache) for the main hard drive, designed to increase speed. Both drives are perceived by the system as a single device. The disadvantage of this type of SSD is traditional — a rather high cost; it is also worth noting that its superiority is most noticeable at relatively low loads (although it does not disappear completely with increasing load).

— HDD + Fusion Drive. A kind of HDD + SSD bundle (see above), used exclusively in Apple computers and optimized for the proprietary macOS operating system. However, it would be more correct to compare this option with the “HDD + Optane” combination (also described above): for example, both drives are perceived by the system as a single unit, and the Fusion Drive module is also used as a high-speed cache for the hard drive. However, there are also significant differences. Firstly, Fusion Drive has significant volumes and is used not only as a service buffer, but also as part of a full-fledged drive — for permanent data storage. Secondly, the total volume of the entire bundle approximately corresponds to the sum of the volumes of both drives (minus a couple of "service" gigabytes). This type of drive is expensive, but the efficiency and convenience are well worth the price.

— SSHD. The so-called hybrid drive: a device that combines a hard drive and a small SSD cache in one case. Some time ago, this solution was quite popular, but now it is almost never found, having been supplanted by a more practical option — various types of HDD + SSD.

— eMMC. A type of solid-state memory originally developed for portable gadgets such as smartphones and tablets. It differs from SSD, on the one hand, in lower cost and low power consumption, on the other hand, in relatively low speed and reliability. Because of this, this type of drive is used extremely rarely — in particular, in single models of microcomputers and thin clients (see "Type").

— HDD + eMMC. Combination of hard disk drive (HDD) and eMMC solid state module. These types of drives are described in detail above; here we note that this option is extremely rare, and in rather specific devices — monoblocks (see "Type") with a transformer function, where the screen is a removable tablet that can be used autonomously. In such a tablet, an eMMC module is usually installed, and a hard drive is placed in the stationary part. However, another option is also possible — a bundle similar to HDD + SSD (see above), where eMMC is used to reduce cost and/or power consumption.

— SSD + eMMC. Another combination of the two types of drives described above. It was used in single monoblocks and nettops — mainly to reduce the cost; Today, this variant is almost non-existent.

Drive capacity

The volume of the main drive supplied with the PC. For models with combined storages (for example, HDD+SSD, see "Drive type"), in this case, the main one is considered to be a more capacious hard drive; and if there are two HDDs in the kit, then they usually have the same capacity.

From a purely practical point of view, the more data the drive holds, the better. So the choice for this indicator rests mainly on the price: a larger capacity inevitably means a higher cost. In addition, we recall that SSD-modules in terms of gigabytes of capacity are much more expensive than hard drives; so you can only compare carriers of the same type by the combination of volume and cost.

As for the specific capacity, a volume of 250 GB or less in modern PCs can be found mainly among SSDs. Hard drives of this size are almost never found, for them a capacity of 250 to 500 GB is still considered quite modest. 501 – 750 GB is a pretty good value for an SSD, and among them it is also mainly used. 751 GB — 1 TB is an impressive figure for an SSD and an average for hard drives, 1.5 – 2 TB is a very solid capacity even for an HDD. And a very high capacity — more than 2 TB — paradoxically, is found even among pure SSDs: such drives are installed in high-end worksta...tions, where speed is no less important than capacity.

Rotational latency

The nominal rotation speed of the hard drive spindle (see "Drive type") installed in the PC.

The platters of hard drives in working condition rotate constantly. The standard rotation speeds found in modern PCs are 5400 and 7200 rpm (revolutions per minute — revolutions per minute). A higher rotation speed speeds up data access, but significantly affects the cost of the drive. In addition, "fast" drives are considered less reliable (which is often offset by various design tricks, but they also affect the price).

2nd drive capacity

The capacity of the optional storage installed in the PC.

This parameter is relevant primarily for configurations with different types of media. So, in HDD + SSD and HDD + eMMC bundles, the hard drive is considered the main drive, and this paragraph indicates the capacity of the solid-state module. In SSD + eMMC configurations, eMMC is considered the second drive — less capacious and performing an auxiliary function. There are PC models with two hard drives, but in such cases, the drives usually have the same volume, and it does not matter for them which one is considered the main one.

If we talk about specific numbers, then the volume up to 128 GB can be considered relatively small, and 128 GB or more is solid. For more information on volumes in general, see "Drive Capacity" above.

NVMe

PC motherboard support for NVMe technology.

NVMe is a standard specifically designed for connecting SSD drives via the PCI-E bus. Most often it is used when installed in the M.2 connector, but it can also be used with other interfaces. This standard initially takes into account the features of solid-state memory, allowing you to maximize its capabilities. So the presence of NVMe is mandatory if you plan to use the fastest SSD modules in the system. Such modules may or may not be included in the delivery package, this point will not hurt to clarify separately; and the need for them arises in resource-intensive tasks, in particular, demanding modern games.

M.2 connector

The presence of at least one M.2 connector on the computer motherboard.

Technically, this is a small slot for compact components and expansion cards, which allows you to use two connection interfaces at once — SATA and PCI-E; most often, both are supported in this connector at once, but this point needs to be specified separately. One of the most popular ways to use M.2 is to connect high-speed SSD drives running over PCI-E: this interface allows you to fully use the capabilities of solid-state memory, while a SATA connection often lacks bandwidth. In addition, expansion boards are also available for M.2 — in particular, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth wireless adapters.

Note that in the standard configuration of the PC, this connector can be either free or busy — this should be specified separately.

Internal 3.5" compartments

The number of internal 3.5" component bays in the computer. This form factor is standard for hard drives, and is also often used in other types of drives; accordingly, the more bays, the more drives you can install on your computer.

Paying attention to the number of internal 3.5" bays makes sense, first of all, if you purchase a configuration without drives or plan to upgrade your PC in the future. It is worth noting that it is recommended to install drives not in a row, but through one slot — for cooling efficiency ; so ideally the number of slots should be twice the number of devices to be installed.

Internal 2.5" compartments

The number of internal bays in the computer for components of the form factor 2.5 ". This form factor is popular, in particular, among SSD drives, as well as compact ("notebook") hard drives.

Paying attention to the number of internal 2.5" bays makes sense, first of all, if you purchase a configuration without drives or plan to upgrade your PC in the future. It is worth noting that it is recommended to install drives not in a row, but through one slot — for cooling efficiency; so that ideally the number of slots should be twice the number of devices installed.

Connectors

In most desktop PCs, this assortment is determined both by connectors on the "motherboard" and on a discrete graphics card, among which VGA, DVI, HDMI output(there are models where HDMI 2 pcs), HDMI input, DisplayPort, miniDisplayPort, optical S /P-DIF. More details about them.

— VGA. He's D-Sub. Analogue video output with maximum resolution up to 1280x1024 and no audio support. It is rarely installed in modern devices, but it can be useful for connecting certain models of projectors and TVs, as well as outdated video equipment.

— DVI. Modern PCs can be equipped with both pure digital DVI-D and hybrid DVI-I; the latter also allows analogue connection, including work with VGA-devices through an adapter, and in analogue format has a resolution of 1280x1024. In digital DVI, this parameter can reach 1920x1200 in single-link mode (single link) and 2560x1600 in dual-link mode. The presence of a dual-channel mode must be specified separately.

— HDMI output. Digital output originally designed for HD content — high-definition video and multi-channel audio. The HDMI interface is almost mandatory for modern HD multimedia technology, and it is also extremely popular i...n computer monitors — so the presence of such an output on a PC provides very extensive features for connecting external screens and even high-end audio devices. Some devices may even have 2 HDMI outputs.

— HDMI input. Your PC has at least one HDMI input. See above for details on the interface itself; here we note that it is the inputs of this format that are found mainly in monoblocks (see "Type"). At a minimum, this allows you to use the monoblock's own display as a screen for another device (for example, as an external monitor for a laptop). However, there are other, more specific options for using the HDMI input — for example, recording an incoming video signal, or transferring (switching) it to one of the PC video outputs.
Both the HDMI inputs and outputs in modern PCs may correspond to different versions:
  • v 1.4. The earliest standard widely used today. Supports resolutions up to 4096x2160 and frame rates up to 120 fps (however, only at a resolution of 1920x1080 or lower), and can also be used to transmit 3D video. In addition to the original version 1.4, you can find improved v 1.4a and v 1.4b — in both cases, the improvements affected mainly the work with 3D.
  • v2.0. The standard, also known as HDMI UHD, was the first to introduce full support for UltraHD 4K, with frame rates up to 60 fps, as well as compatibility with a 21:9 aspect ratio. In addition, the number of simultaneously transmitted channels and audio streams has increased to 32 and 4, respectively. It is also worth noting that initially version 2.0 did not provide support for HDR, but it appeared in update v 2.0a; if this feature is important to you, it's ok to clarify which version 2.0 is provided in the PC, the original or the updated one.
  • v2.0b. The second update of the above v 2.0. The main update was the expansion of HDR capabilities, in particular, support for two new formats.
  • v2.1. It is also HDMI Ultra High Speed: the bandwidth has been increased to such an extent that it became possible to transfer 10K video at 120 fps (not to mention more modest resolutions) as well as work with extended colour schemes up to 16 bits. The latter may come in handy for some professional tasks. However, note that all the features of HDMI v 2.1 are available only when using cables designed for this standard.
— Display port. A digital media interface similar in many respects to HDMI, but mainly used in computer technology — in particular, it is widely used in Apple computers and monitors. One of the interesting features of this standard is the ability to work in the daisy chain format — connecting several screens to one port in series, transmitting its own signal to each of them (although this function is not technically available with all screens for this interface). DisplayPort is also on the market in several versions, the current ones are as follows:
  • v 1.2. The earliest widely used version (2010). However, already in this version, 3D compatibility and the daisy chain mode appeared. The maximum fully supported resolution when connecting a single monitor is 5K (30 fps), transmission up to 8K is possible with certain restrictions; a frame rate of 60 Hz is supported up to a resolution of 3840x2160, and 120 Hz — up to 2560x1600. And when using daisy chain, you can connect up to 2 2560x1600 screens at 60 frames per second or up to 4 1920x1200 screens at the same time. In addition to the original version 1.2, there is an improved v 1.2a, the main innovation of which is support for AMD FreeSync, a technology for synchronizing the monitor's frame rate with the signal from an AMD graphics card.
  • v 1.3. An update introduced in 2014. The increased bandwidth made it possible to provide full, without restrictions, support for 8K at 30 fps, as well as transmit 4K images at 120 fps, sufficient for 3D work. Resolutions in daisy chain mode have also increased — up to 4K (3840x2160) at 60 fps for two screens and 2560x1600 at the same frame rate for four. Of the specific innovations, it is worth mentioning the Dual Mode mode, which allows you to connect HDMI and DVI devices to such a connector through the simplest passive adapters.
  • v 1.4. The newest version widely used in modern PCs. Formally, the maximum connection speed has not increased compared to the previous version, but thanks to signal optimization, it became possible to work with 4K and 5K resolutions at 240 fps and with 8K at 120 fps. However for this, the connected screen must support DSC encoding technology — otherwise, the available resolutions will not differ from version 1.3. In addition, v 1.4 added support for a number of special features, including HDR10, and the maximum number of simultaneously transmitted audio channels increased to 32.
— miniDisplayPort. A smaller version of the DisplayPort connector described above, may also correspond to different versions (see above). Note that the same hardware connector is used in the Thunderbolt interface versions 1 and 2, and the graphic part of this interface is based on DisplayPort. Therefore, even some Thunderbolt monitors can be directly connected to miniDisplayPort (although it is desirable to clarify this possibility separately).

— Optical S/P-DIF. An output used to transmit multi-channel audio in digital format. It uses a TOSLINK optical cable, the significant advantage of which is complete insensitivity to electromagnetic interference. On the other hand, optical fibre requires careful handling, it does not tolerate bends and strong pressure.

— COM port (RS-232). Serial port, originally used to connect dial-up modems and some peripherals, in particular, mice. However, today this interface is used as a service interface in various devices — TVs, projectors, network equipment (routers and switches), etc. Connecting to a PC via RS-232 allows you to control the operation parameters of an external device from a computer.

PS/2

The number of PS/2 connectors provided on the back of the PC.

PS/2 (colloquially "pi-es in half") is a specialized connector with a characteristic round shape, used exclusively for keyboards and mice. Due to the advent of more advanced interfaces (USB 3.2, Thunderbolt, etc.), it is considered obsolete, but it is still found in certain PC models. This is due, in part, to the fact that the use of PS/2 peripherals allows you to free up more advanced ports that may be required for more demanding devices.

As for the quantity, PS/2 connectors are used for a maximum of two — one for the keyboard, the second for the mouse. There are configurations with one such socket — in such cases it is usually made combined and allows the connection of both types of peripherals, to choose from. However, it's ok to clarify these details separately.

USB 2.0

The number of full size USB 2.0 connectors on the back of the PC.

USB is the most popular modern interface for connecting peripherals. And the number of connectors is, accordingly, the number of devices that can be simultaneously connected to the rear panel without the use of splitters. Specifically, version 2.0 was the most popular some time ago, but now it is considered obsolete, it is gradually being replaced by more advanced standards like USB 3.0 (3.1 gen1). However, USB 2.0 capabilities (data transfer rates up to 480 Mbps) are still sufficient for many peripheral devices, from keyboards and mice to printers. So it's still a long way from the end of the standard, and some PCs may have 4 or more USB 2.0 ports on the back.

Separately, it should be noted that similar connectors can be placed on the front side of the case. However, for peripherals that need to be constantly connected to the computer, it is more convenient to use the rear panel, while the front placement is better suited for frequent connection / disconnection.

USB 3.2 gen1

The number of full-sized USB 3.2 gen1 connectors(previously labeled USB 3.1 gen1 and USB 3.0) provided on the back of the PC.

USB is the most popular modern interface for connecting peripherals. And the number of connectors is, accordingly, the number of devices that can be simultaneously connected to the rear panel without the use of splitters. As for the USB 3.2 gen1 version, it has a connection speed of about 4.8 Gb / s. In some configurations, the number of such connectors can reach 4 or even more.

It is also worth noting that ports of this type can be placed on the front side of the case. However, for peripherals that need to be constantly connected to the computer, it is more convenient to use the rear panel, while the front placement is better suited for frequent connection / disconnection.

USB 3.2 gen2

The number of full size USB 3.2 gen2 connectors provided on the back of the PC.

USB is the most popular modern interface for connecting peripherals. And the number of connectors is, accordingly, the number of devices that can be simultaneously connected to the rear panel without the use of splitters. And the version previously known as USB 3.1 and USB 3.1 gen2 is now officially called USB 3.2 gen2. The maximum data transfer rate in this version reaches 10 Gb / s, and with the support of the USB Power Delivery function, this port can supply power to external devices up to 100 W.

Separately, it is worth noting that ports of this type can also be located on the front side of the case. However, for peripherals that need to be constantly connected to the computer, it is more convenient to use the rear panel, while the front placement is better suited for frequent connection / disconnection.

USB C 3.2 gen1

The number of USB C 3.2 gen1 connectors(previously labeled USB C 3.1 gen1 and USB C 3.0) provided on the back of the PC; respectively, the number of devices with such plugs that can be simultaneously connected to the rear panel without the use of splitters.

USB C was created as an improvement on the classic USB plug: it is noticeably smaller and has a reversible design that allows you to connect the plug in either direction. And version 3.2 gen1 allows you to achieve data transfer rates up to 4.8 Gb / s; in fact, this is the most modest version of the USB connection used in modern USB-C type ports, however, even such characteristics are more than sufficient for most external devices with this type of connector.

Separately, it is worth noting that USB C ports can be placed on the front side of the case. However, for peripherals that need to be constantly connected to the computer, it is more convenient to use the rear panel, while the front placement is better suited for frequent connection / disconnection.

USB C 3.2 gen2

The number of USB C 3.2 gen2 connectors(previously labeled USB C 3.1 gen2 and USB C 3.1) provided on the back of the PC; respectively, the number of devices with such plugs that can be simultaneously connected to the rear panel without the use of splitters.

USB C was created as an improvement on the classic USB plug: it is noticeably smaller and has a reversible design that allows you to connect the plug in either direction. And version 3.2 gen2 allows you to achieve speeds up to 10 Gb / s and power supply up to 100 W (due to the USB Power Delivery function). These capabilities are enough even for the most demanding modern devices with a USB C connection.

Separately, it is worth noting that USB C ports can be placed on the front side of the case. However, for peripherals that need to be constantly connected to the computer, it is more convenient to use the rear panel, while the front placement is better suited for frequent connection / disconnection.

USB C 3.2 gen2x2

The number of USB C 3.2 gen2x2 ports provided in the computer.

USB C is a relatively new universal connector designed for use in both desktop and laptop computers. It is slightly larger than microUSB, has a convenient double-sided design (it doesn’t matter which side you connect the plug), and also allows you to implement increased power supply and a number of special functions. In addition, the same connector is standardly used in the Thunderbolt v3 interface, and technically it can be used for other interfaces.

As for the specific version of USB C 3.2 gen2x2, it allows you to achieve a connection speed of 20 Gb / s - that is, twice as fast as USB C 3.2 gen2, hence the name. It is also worth noting that the connection according to the 3.2 gen2x2 standard is implemented only through USB C connectors and is not used in ports of earlier standards.

USB4

The number of USB4 connectors provided in the PC.

USB4 is the latest (as of the end of 2020) version of the USB interface introduced in 2019. It uses only USB C connectors (remember, this is a two-way connector slightly larger than microUSB) and differs markedly from previous versions of USB. One of the key differences is that USB4 does not have its own data format — instead, such a connection is used to transfer information according to several standards at once: USB 3.2 and DisplayPort as mandatory, as well as PCI-E as an option. Another feature is that USB4 is based on Thunderbolt v3 (see "Thunderbolt Interface" below) and uses the same USB C connector; this often makes USB4 devices and connectors compatible with Thunderbolt v3 (although this is not strictly required), and Thunderbolt v4 support for this interface is built-in. It is also worth noting that this version of USB allows the connection of devices in a "chain" (daisy chain) and by default supports Power Delivery technology, which allows you to optimize the process of charging external gadgets (provided that they also implement this technology).

The maximum data transfer rate for such a connector should be at least 10 Gb / s, in fact, options for 20 Gb / s and even 40 Gb / s are often found (depending on the technologies and standards supported by a particular port). At the same time, the USB4 inputs are quite compatible with peripherals for earlier vers...ions of USB — except that devices with a full-size USB A plug require an adapter.

Thunderbolt

The version and number of Thunderbolt connectors provided in the PC design (usually on the back panel).

Initially, Thunderbolt is a universal interface used mainly in Apple technology. It can be used both as a common peripheral connector (similar to USB) and as a video output; while the video is output according to the DisplayPort standard, which allows you to connect monitors with the appropriate inputs (sometimes directly, sometimes through simple adapters). And different versions of Thunderbolt differ mainly in maximum connection speed and connector type. The legacy Thunderbolt v1 and Thunderbolt v2 use the miniDisplayPort socket and provide up to 10 and 20 Gbps, respectively. And Thunderbolt v3 and Thunderbolt v4, which support speeds up to 40 Gb / s, work through USB C; often such a connector in a PC is made combined and can function both as USB itself and as Thunderbolt, depending on the connected peripherals.

- Thunderbolt 3. Version introduced in 2015. In this generation, developers abandoned the DisplayPort connector in favor of the more versatile USB C. In light of this, the Thunderbolt v3 connection is often implemented not as a separate connector, but as a special mode of operation of the regular USB C port (see "Alternate Mode"). And outputs and devices for USB4 (see above) can be made compatible with this interface as well (althou...gh this is not strictly required). Also optional, but a very common feature is Power Delivery support, which allows you to supply connected devices with power up to 100 watts over the same cable. The data transfer rate can reach 40 Gbps, however, it should be borne in mind that with a wire length of more than 0.5 m, a special active cable may be required to maintain this speed. However, conventional passive USB C cables are also suitable for working with Thunderbolt v3 - except that the speed may be noticeably lower than the maximum possible (although higher than 20 Gb / s, which runs USB 3.2 gen2).

Thunderbolt v4. The latest (mid-2022) version of this interface, presented in the summer of the same year. It also uses a USB C connector. Formally, the maximum throughput remains the same as its predecessor - 40 Gb / s; however, a number of improvements have significantly increased the actual connectivity. So, Thunderbolt v4 allows you to broadcast a signal simultaneously to two 4K monitors (at least) and provides a data transfer rate according to the PCI-E standard of at least 32 Gb / s (against 16 Gb / s in the previous version). In addition, this interface is mutually compatible with USB4 by default, and the daisy chain function is supplemented by the ability to connect hubs with up to 4 Thunderbolt v4 ports. Other features include protection against DMA (direct memory access) attacks.

Alternate Mode

The PC has at least one USB C connector with support for Alternate Mode.

In accordance with the name, Alternate Mode is an alternative mode of operation of the Type C connector, when not USB, but other connection interfaces are implemented through it. The specific set of such interfaces may be different, it should be specified for each model separately. The most typical example is Thunderbolt v3, such a connection, by definition, works through a USB C hardware connector. The Thunderbolt specification also includes DisplayPort support, but this video output can be implemented via USB C and independently, without Thunderbolt functionality. Also, the list of the most popular Alternate Mode options includes HDMI — both in its classic form and in the "mobile" version of MHL (the latter, however, is more typical for smartphones and other handheld equipment than for PCs).

Monitors connection

The maximum number of monitors that can be connected to a PC at the same time and shared.

Simultaneous connection of several screens allows you to expand the visual space available to the user. For example, it can be useful for designers and layout designers when working with large-format materials, for programmers to separate tasks (one monitor for writing code, the second for searching for the necessary information and other auxiliary purposes), and for gamers-enthusiasts — to ensure the maximum immersion effect.

Optical drive

The type of optical disc drive provided on the front of the PC. It is worth saying that nowadays, many computers are not equipped with such drives at all — modern technologies make it possible to do without optical discs. If there is equipment for such disks, its options may be as follows:

DVD-RW. Drives capable of reading and writing DVDs (as well as older CDs). The standard capacity of such a disc is 4.7 GB, which allows you to burn a movie in HD quality (or even higher) on one disc, and install the installation files of a rather “heavy” modern game on several discs. At the same time, DVD drives and media for them are cheaper than Blu-ray, and therefore are used more often.

— DVD/Blu Ray. Drives that support both CD and DVD (see above) and Blu-ray discs. The latter are specially designed for HD content (including 3D) and demanding games and have the appropriate capacity — up to 66 GB. However, nowadays, media of this type are used extremely rarely — they are quite expensive, while there are more convenient and perfect alternatives (starting from external HDDs and ending with downloading data from the Internet via high-speed channels). Therefore, Blu-ray drives have almost fallen into disuse.

Some time ago, CD-only drives were also found in PCs, but today they are completely obsolete.

5.25" compartments

Number of 5.25" bays on the front of the PC.

One of the most popular ways to use such bays is to install DVD and Blu-ray drives, but they can also accommodate other components: “pockets” for removable HDDs and SSDs, card readers, and even specific devices like cooler control units. Accordingly, the more compartments, the more peripheral devices you can simultaneously install in your computer. However an abundance of 5.25 "peripherals is not often required in fact; on the other hand, it is recommended to install some types of devices not in a row, close to each other, but through a slot — for sufficient cooling efficiency. Therefore, most often the number of compartments of this type does not exceed 4 , but in some configurations it can be as high as 10.

3.5" compartments

Number of 3.5" bays on the front of the PC.

Do not confuse such slots with internal bays of the same form factor (see above): in this case, we are talking about seats for peripherals accessible from the outside. A card reader can be cited as an example of such peripherals — it is these devices that are most often installed in 3.5" bays on the front panel. However, in general, there are few components for such slots, so there are rarely more than 2 slots themselves — if they are available in the design at all .

mini-Jack (3.5 mm)

The presence of a mini-Jack connector (3.5 mm) on the front panel of the PC. More precisely, in ordinary desktop PCs, gaming systems and monoblocks (see "Type") there are most often two such connectors: one plays the role of an output for headphones, speakers, etc., the second plays the role of a microphone input. But in compact devices like some mini-Jack nettops, there can be only one — a universal port, in which you can turn on both headphones / speakers and a headset with one common plug for a microphone and “ears”.

Anyway, such connectors are closer to the user and are more convenient to connect than similar sound card outputs on the rear panel of the case.

USB 2.0

The number of full size USB 2.0 connectors provided on the front of the PC.

USB is the most popular modern interface for connecting peripherals. And the number of connectors is, accordingly, the number of devices that can be simultaneously connected to the front panel without the use of splitters. Specifically, version 2.0 was the most popular some time ago, but now it is considered obsolete, it is gradually being replaced by more advanced standards like USB 3.0 (3.1 gen1). However, USB 2.0 capabilities (data transfer rates up to 480 Mbps) are still sufficient for many peripheral devices, from keyboards and mice to printers. So this standard is still far from completely disappearing, and some PCs may have several of these ports on the front panel at once.

Separately, it is worth noting that similar connectors are most often available on the back of the case. However, the front panel is closer to the user, and the sockets on it are optimal for peripherals that need to be connected and disconnected frequently, such as flash drives.

USB 3.2 gen1

The number of full-size USB 3.2 gen1 connectors(previously labeled USB 3.1 gen1 and USB 3.0) provided on the front panel of the PC.

USB is the most popular modern interface for connecting peripherals. And the number of connectors is, accordingly, the number of devices that can be simultaneously connected to the front panel without the use of splitters. As for version 3.2 gen1, it has speeds up to 4.8 Gb / s). USB 3.2 gen1 connectors are also compatible with USB 2.0 peripherals. Thus, 2 or more such connectors are often provided on the front panel at once.

Separately, it is worth noting that similar ports are most often available on the back of the case. However, the front panel is closer to the user, the connectors on it are optimally suited for peripherals that need to be connected and disconnected frequently, such as flash drives.

USB 3.2 gen2

The number of full-size USB 3.2 gen2 connectors on the front of the PC.

USB is the most popular modern interface for connecting peripherals. And the number of connectors is, accordingly, the number of devices that can be simultaneously connected to the front panel without the use of splitters. And the version previously known as USB 3.1 and USB 3.1 gen2 is now officially called USB 3.2 gen2. The maximum data transfer rate in this version reaches 10 Gb / s, and with the support of the USB Power Delivery function, this port can supply power to devices up to 100 W. At the same time, peripherals of earlier versions using the same standard plug can be connected to the USB 3.2 gen2 connector. Several such connectors (2 or more) can be provided on the front panel at once.

Separately, it is worth noting that similar ports are most often available on the back of the case. However, the front panel is closer to the user, the connectors on it are optimally suited for peripherals that need to be connected and disconnected frequently, such as flash drives.

USB C 3.2 gen1

The number of USB C 3.2 gen1 connectors(previously labeled USB C 3.1 gen1 and USB C 3.0) provided on the front panel of the PC; respectively, the number of devices with such plugs that can be simultaneously connected to the front panel without the use of splitters.

USB C was created as an improvement on the classic USB plug: it is noticeably smaller and has a reversible design that allows you to connect the plug in either direction. And version 3.2 gen1 allows you to achieve data transfer rates up to 4.8 Gb / s; in fact, this is the most modest version of the USB connection used in modern USB-C type ports, however, even such characteristics are more than sufficient for most external devices with this type of connector.

Separately, it is worth noting that USB C ports can also be provided on the back of the case. However, the front panel is closer to the user, the connectors on it are optimally suited for peripherals that need to be connected and disconnected frequently, such as flash drives.

USB C 3.2 gen2

The number of USB C 3.2 gen2 connectors (previously labeled USB C 3.1 gen2 and USB C 3.1) provided on the front panel of the PC; respectively, the number of devices with such plugs that can be simultaneously connected to the front panel without the use of splitters.

USB C was created as an improvement on the classic USB plug: it is noticeably smaller and has a reversible design that allows you to connect the plug in either direction. And version 3.2 gen2 is an improvement on 3.2 gen1, which allows you to achieve speeds up to 10 Gb / s and power supply up to 100 W (due to the USB Power Delivery function). These capabilities are enough even for the most demanding modern devices with a USB C connection; at the same time, peripherals under USB C 3.2 gen1 can also be connected to ports of this type.

Separately, it is worth noting that USB C ports can also be provided on the back of the case. However, the front panel is closer to the user, the connectors on it are optimally suited for peripherals that need to be connected and disconnected frequently, such as flash drives.

USB4

USB4 is the latest (as of mid-2022) version of the USB interface introduced in 2019. It uses only USB C connectors (remember, this is a two-way connector slightly larger than microUSB) and differs markedly from previous versions of USB. One of the key differences is that USB4 does not have its own data format - instead, such a connection is used to transfer information according to several standards at once: USB 3.2 and DisplayPort as mandatory, as well as PCI-E as an option. Another feature is that USB4 is based on Thunderbolt v3 (see "Thunderbolt Interface" below) and uses the same USB C connector; this often makes USB4 devices and connectors compatible with Thunderbolt v3 (although this is not strictly required), and Thunderbolt v4 support for this interface is built-in. It is also worth noting that this version of USB allows the connection of devices in a "chain" (daisy chain) and by default supports Power Delivery technology, which allows you to optimize the process of charging external gadgets (provided that they also implement this technology).

The maximum data transfer rate for such a connector should be at least 10 Gb / s, in fact, options for 20 Gb / s and even 40 Gb / s are often found (depending on the technologies and standards supported by a particular port). At the same time, the USB4 inputs are quite compatible with peripherals for earlier versions of USB - except that devices with a full-size USB A plug require an adapter.

Thunderbolt

Initially, Thunderbolt is a universal interface used mainly in Apple technology. It can be used both as a common peripheral connector (similar to USB) and as a video output; while the video is output according to the DisplayPort standard, which allows you to connect monitors with the appropriate inputs (sometimes directly, sometimes through simple adapters). And different versions of Thunderbolt differ mainly in maximum connection speed and connector type. The legacy Thunderbolt v1 and Thunderbolt v2 use the miniDisplayPort socket and provide up to 10 and 20 Gbps, respectively. And Thunderbolt v3 and Thunderbolt v4, which support speeds up to 40 Gb / s, work through USB C; often such a connector in a PC is made combined and can function both as USB itself and as Thunderbolt, depending on the connected peripherals.

- Thunderbolt 3. Version introduced in 2015. In this generation, developers abandoned the DisplayPort connector in favor of the more versatile USB C. Thus, the Thunderbolt v3 connection is often implemented not as a separate connector, but as a special mode of operation of the regular USB C port (see "Alternate Mode"). And outputs and devices for USB4 (see above) can be initially made compatible with this interface as well (although this is not strictly required). Also optional, but a very common feature is Power Delivery support, which allows you to supply connected devices with power up to 100 watts over the same cable. The data transfer rate can reach...40 Gbps, however, note that with a wire length of more than 0.5 m, a special active cable may be required to maintain this speed. However, conventional passive USB C cables are also suitable for working with Thunderbolt v3 - except that the speed may be noticeably lower than the maximum possible (albeit above 20 Gb / s, which runs USB 3.2 gen2).

Thunderbolt v4. The latest (mid-2022) version of this interface, presented in the summer of the same year. It also uses a USB C connector. Formally, the maximum throughput remains the same as its predecessor - 40 Gb / s; however, a number of improvements have significantly increased the actual connectivity. Thus, Thunderbolt v4 allows you to broadcast a signal simultaneously to two 4K monitors (at least) and provides a data transfer rate according to the PCI-E standard of at least 32 Gb / s (against 16 Gb / s in the previous version). In addition, this interface is mutually compatible with USB4 by default, and the daisy chain function is supplemented by the ability to connect hubs with up to 4 Thunderbolt v4 ports. Other features include protection against DMA (direct memory access) attacks.

Card reader

The presence of a card reader — a device for reading memory cards — on the front panel of the PC.

Memory cards are used as a standard storage medium in modern cameras, and are also often used in various gadgets (smartphones, tablets, players, action cameras / DVRs, etc.) as additional or even primary storage. The presence of a card reader greatly facilitates the exchange of information between a PC or such devices — for example, copying photos and videos from a camera or updating the music collection on a smartphone. Note that card readers in modern PCs are almost guaranteed to support SD / MMC cards, but compatibility with other formats (including advanced versions of SD, like SDXC) should be specified separately. However, many computers are initially able to work with 5 – 6 types of cards at once, sometimes quite specific ones.

Digital screen

The presence of a separate digital display on the front of the computer. Such a display can display various service information — for example, processor temperature, cooler speed, percentage of completion of a certain task, etc. The practical meaning of this function lies in the fact that it allows you to get certain information without switching the image on the monitor and, most often, without making “extra movements” at all. This is especially important for gaming PCs (see "Type"); in fact, digital displays are mainly used in them.

LAN (RJ-45)

Type of LAN interface (RJ-45) provided in the design of the PC; in fact, the maximum data transfer rate supported by this interface. If there is more than one such connector, the specific number of ports (usually 2) is also specified here.

LAN, also known as Ethernet, is a standard connector for wired connection to computer networks; it can be a local area network or an ethernet cable from an internet provider. The most modest version of the LAN found in modern PCs is 100 Mbps; this speed is enough for most everyday tasks, including watching high-definition video streaming. However, faster standards are becoming more common. For example, many PCs support LAN speeds up to 1 Gbps, and some up to 10 Gbps.

Note that high speed can be useful not only for transferring large amounts of data, but also for reducing lags in online games; so a fast network card is a must for advanced gaming systems. As for the two LAN ports, this equipment provides additional features — for example, it allows you to use one port for the Internet, the second — for a secure work network. At the same time, such capabilities are expensive and rarely needed; therefore, models for several LAN connectors can be found mainly among high-end workstations.

LAN controller

Model of the LAN controller installed in the computer.

The LAN controller provides communication between the motherboard and the network port(s) of the PC. The model of this controller is indicated if it is a high-class module, designed for high communication quality and maximum lag reduction. Such capabilities are especially important for gaming systems used in online games.

Wi-Fi

Wi-Fi standard supported by PC - if available.

Recall that computers with a Wi-Fi module are able to connect to the Internet and local networks through wireless routers - this eliminates the hassle of laying wires. In addition, this technology can be used to connect directly to other devices (particularly digital cameras). As for the speed and communication standards, the most relevant standards for modern PCs are:

- Wi-Fi 4 (802.11n) - maximum speed up to 300 Mbps, operating frequencies 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz;
- Wi-Fi 5 (802.11ac) - maximum speed up to 1 Gb / s on a single channel and up to 6 Gb / s in multi-channel MIMO format, operating frequency 5 GHz;
- Wi-Fi 6 (802.11ax) - maximum speed up to 10 Gb / s, operating frequencies from 1 to 7 GHz (with support for standard 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz bands). Also in this version, a number of optimizations were introduced regarding the operation of several devices on one channel, which improved the efficiency of work with a busy connection.
- Wi-Fi 6E (802.11ax). An enhanced branch of the Wi-Fi 6 standard with data rates up to 10 Gbps. The Wi-Fi 6E standard is technically called 802.11ax. But unlike basic Wi-Fi 6, which is similarly named, it provides for operation in the unloaded 6 GHz band. In general, the standard uses 14 different frequency bands, offering high bandwidth with many active connections.

Note that, in addition to the Wi-Fi standard directly stated in the specifications, modern PCs...usually support earlier versions to maintain compatibility with relatively old equipment.

Bluetooth

A technology designed for direct wireless connection between different devices. The range of such a connection can be up to 10 m (up to 100 m in some special Bluetooth standards), while it works through obstacles. The options for using the Bluetooth module depend on the protocols provided for in a particular case. However, the wireless modules of modern PCs are usually made as functional as possible, and connectivity is limited rather by the functionality of the device that connects to the computer. Here are some of the most popular uses for Bluetooth:

— Direct file sharing (for example, uploading photos from a mobile phone or copying music to a laptop).
— Connecting wireless peripherals — primarily headphones, keyboards and mice.
— Remote control of an external device (for example, switching a track on a music centre).
— Transferring data from smart home sensors, from sports and medical sensors (heart rate sensor, pedometer, etc.) to a PC.

Sound

Audio format supported by the PC sound card. Specified depending on the device type. For classic PCs (see "Type"), the sound format corresponds to the largest number of channels that a computer can output through analogue outputs — the possibility of using one or another set of acoustics directly depends on this. And for devices with built-in speakers, primarily monoblocks (see "Type"), this paragraph usually specifies the format of the built-in acoustics.

Also note that digital interfaces like SP / DIF (see "Connectors") can provide more channels, but such a signal cannot be directly output to the speakers — you need an audio receiver or other additional converter. So the main parameter is considered to be the number of "analogue" channels or speakers. The options here might be:

— 2.0. Traditional stereo is the most modest format that can provide the effect of surround sound. Of course, such a sound cannot be compared in terms of “presence effect” with advanced standards like 5.1 and 7.1, but in many cases even it is more than enough. Note that the 2.0 format is most often provided for in monoblocks — it means the presence of a pair of built-in speakers; it can be difficult to provide more extensive acoustics in such PCs.

— 2.1. Two-channel stereo sound (see above) with a subwoofer to enhance the bass sound. For a number of reasons, it has not received much distributio...n, it is found, again, mainly in monoblocks — in such devices two ordinary speakers and a “sub” are installed.

— 2.2. Extended version of the 2.1 format with two subwoofers. Theoretically capable of delivering more powerful and authentic bass, but at a higher cost, these benefits are rarely seen in fact. Therefore, it is used even less frequently than 2.1 — again, mainly in monoblocks.

— 4.0. Theoretically, 4.0 is a surround sound format with two front and two rear channels. At the same time, in a PC this format is found exclusively among monoblocks and usually means the presence of two additional speakers, in addition to the standard stereo speakers. The effect of "sound from all directions" on such a system cannot be achieved, but the sound is still better and more reliable than with 2.0 systems. However, the price also comes out higher, despite the fact that the difference in sound is not fundamental for everyone. Therefore, this format has not received distribution.

— 4.2. An extended version of the 4.0 described above, where a pair of subwoofers has been added to an improved 4-speaker stereo system. Due to this, the quality of the bass improves, but the dimensions and cost of acoustics increase even more, and therefore such systems are even rarer.

— 5.1. The classic format of full-fledged surround sound ("from all sides"): two front channels, one centre, two rear and a subwoofer. A lot of content has been released under this sound, and games often provide compatibility with 5.1 systems. At the same time, support for this format in its pure form is relatively rare among modern PCs. 7.1 audio cards are used much more often: having more advanced features, they almost do not differ in price and are quite capable of working with 5.1 as well.

— 7.1. Further, after 5.1, improvement of the idea of surround sound. Such systems have 5 traditional sound channels (2 to the front, 1 front centre and 2 rear), and 2 additional channels can be placed in different ways — as side, as "add-ons" above the front or rear, etc. In any In this case, the 7.1 format allows you to achieve a more reliable sound than 5.1, and its support in modern sound cards is very inexpensive.

— 10.2. A specific audio format used in some high-end multimedia monoblocks. The 10 main speakers in such devices are combined into a soundbar under the screen and provide as authentic surround sound as possible in systems without rear channels. In addition, such acoustics are often made multiband — that is, they include specialized speakers optimized for a specific frequency band and reproducing only it. This further improves the sound quality. And two subwoofers, in turn, allow you to achieve the corresponding bass characteristics. At the same time, this option is extremely rare — both because of the high cost and because it is easier to achieve the desired sound quality on separately selected acoustics.

Audiochip

The model of the audio chip (a module for processing and outputting sound) installed in the computer. Data on the exact name of the sound chip will be useful when looking for detailed information about it.

Modern PCs can be equipped with fairly advanced audio modules, with support for high-quality sound and extensive features. Thanks to this, some configurations can even be used for recording and other professional audio work. However, if you are planning such an application, it would not hurt to clarify the specific capabilities of the audio chip separately: it may well be that even an advanced workstation will still need an external audio card.

Speakers

The presence of built-in speakers in the PC.

This function allows you to do without computer speakers and headphones, playing sound on the computer itself. However, note that no built-in system is capable of fully replacing individual speakers. In addition to this, the specifics and overall quality of the built-in acoustics can be different. So, the most advanced and powerful speakers are used in monoblocks (see "Type") — most often such sound systems are not inferior to entry-level computer speakers, or even average ones. In nettops, on the contrary, the sound quality and volume are extremely low, and the acoustics are intended not so much for full listening as for checking whether “there is sound or not” (for example, when setting up external speakers). In principle, speakers are not built into gaming models — such PCs are supposed to be equipped with speakers at their discretion. But in conventional desktop PCs, built-in acoustics may well be used — this is typical mainly for models in the "desktop" format, placed horizontally on the table. The quality of such acoustics is usually somewhere in the middle between nettops and monoblocks.

Acoustics

The brand of the built-in speaker system installed in the PC.

Usually, not a specific speaker model is indicated as a brand, but the general brand under which it is released. These data are usually specified for advertising purposes — when the PC has speakers from a well-known manufacturer that produces premium solutions, and the very name of this brand is a sign of a high-class sound system. Examples of such brands include Bang & Olufsen and Harman Kardon.

Built-in microphone

The presence of a PC microphone built directly into the case.

This function is found only among monoblocks (see "Type") — it does not make sense in other types of computers, you need to use external microphones with them. The characteristics of the built-in microphone are usually quite modest: they are enough for comfortable voice communication, for example, via Skype, but for more serious tasks (even for amateur recording of a song with a guitar) it is better to use separate devices with higher sound quality.

Webcam

The PC has its own built -in webcam.

Such a camera can be used for video communication, online streaming, recording amateur videos, etc. The optimal place for its placement is above the computer screen. Therefore, only monoblocks are equipped with built-in "webcams" — in other models there is simply nowhere to install the camera. Note that the characteristics of such an "eye" can be quite modest, and for more or less high-quality video recording or broadcasting, you may still need a separate webcam. Therefore, there are also monoblocks without a camera.

Face scanner (FaceID)

A system capable of recognizing a user by their face. Note that in this case, we mean not just recognition by an image from a conventional camera (this is a purely software function that does not depend on PC hardware), but the use of a special scanner with IR illumination. Such a scanner works with a three-dimensional model of the face and takes into account many individual features, which ensures high accuracy and reliability: the system is not misled either by the turns and tilts of the head, or even changes in appearance, such as changing hairstyles or facial hair. As a result, many modern FaceID systems give fewer errors than even fingerprint scanners. However, such systems also have weaknesses: this is primarily the recognition of twins, as well as children under 13-14 years old, who still have relatively few individual facial features.

As for the application, the main purpose of FaceID is to authorize the user when logging in and various accounts, making payments, etc. Separately, we note that support for this authorization method is built into Windows Hello, a biometric recognition system built into Windows 10. However, the data from the scanner can also be used for other purposes, sometimes quite original — for example, to animate a three-dimensional muzzle on the screen, copying the user's facial expressions. The scanner itself makes sense to install only near the screen, so such systems are found exclusively in monob...locks (see "Type").

Fingerprint scanner

A sensor that recognizes the user's fingerprint. Technically, this is one of the most convenient and reliable methods of authorization when logging in, making payments and other similar actions: you can forget the password or accidentally open it to an outsider, but the fingerprint is not lost, and it is extremely difficult to copy it. However, for a number of reasons, fingerprint scanners have not gained popularity in modern PCs — they are found only in some high-end business monoblocks.

TV tuner

A device for receiving broadcast signals that allows you to use a personal computer as a TV. In this case, we are not talking about watching TV broadcasts via the Internet (this is available on any PC), but about connecting a signal from an antenna, cable or satellite receiver. Note that there are several TV broadcast formats, and when buying a TV with this function, it is advisable to check whether the built-in TV tuner is compatible with the desired format.

Remote control

Remote control included with PC.

Such a remote control is usually designed mainly to control multimedia functions: volume, rewind and switch tracks in the player, switch slides, etc. On the other hand, as a remote control, you can use wireless keyboards and/or mice, of which there are a great many today (and which can work through an adapter even if the PC does not have its own wireless modules). Therefore, this feature is found mainly in monoblocks (see "Type") with TV tuners and is designed for situations where the computer is used as a TV.

TPM

A security module(cryptoprocessor) used to encrypt information stored on a PC. Such a module stores the keys for decoding encrypted data, it is also responsible for the encryption/decryption process itself. The TPM is part of the motherboard and provides protection at the hardware level: the part of its memory that stores private keys is independent of the operating system and is completely closed from external access. The capabilities of such a module include not only the creation of cryptographic keys, but also their binding to a specific hardware or software configuration. In other words, data can be encrypted in such a way that decryption requires not only a key, but also a computer with certain equipment and/or a set of software — on other systems, information will not be available even if the keys are available.

In general, the TPM module provides a very high degree of protection, moreover, it is itself protected from unauthorized access; therefore, this feature is considered highly desirable for computers used to work with confidential information.

Kensington / Noble lock

Nest on the body for a special lock that protects against theft. With the help of such a lock, a thin metal cable can be attached to the case, “tying” the PC to a table, wall, or other fixed / heavy object. This feature is especially useful for devices located in public places — for example, in the trading floors of stores or at exhibition stands. Of course, the lock does not provide absolute protection against kidnapping, but it greatly complicates the theft "on a dash".

Note that Kensington and Noble are two different types of security locks and are not mutually compatible. The socket on the body can be designed for both of these standards at once, or only for one of them; this point should be clarified separately.

Lighting type

The type of backlight provided in the design of the PC. Indicated by the part of the computer that is actually highlighted; most often this is the case, but other places of installation are possible, for example, cooling fans.

Anyway, this feature does not affect the functionality of the PC, but gives it an original and stylish appearance. This is especially appreciated by gamers, so most of the backlit configurations are just for gaming (see "Type"). The most advanced backlight systems may provide the ability to change colour and/or synchronize with other system components and peripherals.

Lighting colour

The colour of the backlight provided in the PC.

About the backlight itself, see above, the choice for this indicator depends solely on the user's personal aesthetic preferences, as well as the wishes for the design of the computer and the space around it. Separately, it is worth mentioning RGB-backlight — this is the name of the system in which the shade of the glow can be chosen at will. This provides extensive customization options and allows you to provide various additional functions such as synchronization or colour music (however, the presence and set of such functions will not hurt to clarify separately).

Lighting sync

Backlight synchronization technology used in PC.

About the backlight itself, see above; synchronization allows you to coordinate its work with the illumination of other system components: keyboards, mice, speakers, graphics cards, etc. Such features are especially appreciated by enthusiastic gamers and fans of external PC “tuning”. However, for normal collaboration, all synchronized components must support the same technology — and each manufacturer, usually, has its own.

Lliquid cooling

The presence of a water cooling system in the design of the PC.

Such systems are highly efficient, but complex, cumbersome and expensive. Therefore, it makes sense to use them only in the most powerful and "hot" PCs, as well as systems with the potential for further "overclocking" — that is, in configurations for which traditional air cooling with coolers is not enough. Thus, the presence of this feature is an unmistakable sign of a high-end performance PC, usually a gaming one.

Keyboard and mouse

Keyboard and mouse included with PC. This configuration eliminates the need to purchase these accessories separately, and complete peripherals, by definition, will be optimally compatible with a computer. On the other hand, note that fairly simple keyboards and mice are usually included in the kit; for a demanding user — for example, an enthusiast gamer — such equipment may not be advanced enough.

Manipulators connecting

Method of connecting manipulators (keyboard and mouse) originally supplied with the PC.

— Wired. Wired keyboards and mice are inexpensive and do not require their own power supply — that is, they give unlimited operating time, without the need to change batteries or recharge the battery. In addition, they are suitable for even the most inexpensive PCs that are not equipped with Bluetooth or Wi-Fi wireless modules. The disadvantages of this option include: firstly, the actual presence of a wire that limits mobility and which sometimes has to be pulled through hard-to-reach places; secondly, the need for free ports for connection. At the same time, these shortcomings are not so often critical, so most modern PCs with manipulators come with wired accessories in the kit.

— Wireless. Wireless keyboards and mice give the user additional convenience: they allow you to move freely within a radius of at least a few metres from the computer, without worrying about how to place the wire during the next move. On the other hand, such manipulators are much more expensive than wired ones, they require a power source — batteries or an accumulator, and the operating time from such a source is limited (although it is often measured in weeks or even months). In addition, to use wireless peripherals, it is necessary that the appropriate connection interface (most often Bluetooth) is supported by the computer itself, which is not found in every configuration. Therefore, wi...reless accessories are included in the package much less often than wired ones.

PSU power

The power of the power supply installed in the PC.

Theoretically, if you buy a ready-to-use computer, the power of the block installed in it is guaranteed to be enough for the normal operation of the system. However, even in such cases, it's ok to pay attention to this parameter: other things being equal, a more powerful PSU provides an additional margin in case of high loads and emergency situations. And if the system is bought understaffed (for example, without RAM or a drive), or it is planned to be upgraded (especially with the installation of “gluttonous” components like a discrete graphics card), you should definitely clarify whether the PSU has enough capabilities for this. The power of the power supply should definitely not be lower than the power consumption of the system, and ideally it should exceed it by at least 100 – 150 W — again, in case of unforeseen situations.

Also, this parameter must be taken into account in some situations when catering — for example, when calculating the total load when connecting a computer to an uninterrupted power supply (UPS).

Preinstalled OS

The operating system that the PC comes with. Its presence is not mandatory — many configurations are sold without a pre-installed OS, in the hope that the user can choose the system at his discretion. However, in many cases it is easier to buy a PC with an operating system on board: this allows you to at least use it right out of the box (with a few exceptions, see below).

Most often nowadays, computers use Windows 10, Windows 11, Linux or macOS. More details about them and other OS:

— Windows 10. Among the main innovations of the "dozens" are the built-in voice assistant Cortana, the Edge browser, support for multiple desktops, updated Start menu and notification centre, a major update of standard pre-installed programs, etc. It is available in several editions, in this case, the basic version is meant — Windows 10 Home, designed for home use and small organizations.

Windows 10 Pro. The professional edition of Windows 10 described above, designed for the business sector, as well as professionals and IT enthusiasts. In addition to the functionality of Windows 10 Home, it offers a number of advanced features — such as Active Directory, remote desktop, BitLocker encryption tool and a tool for working with Hyper V virtual mac...hines. Note that an even more advanced edition of Pro For Workstations is being released for powerful workstations, however it is practically not used as a preinstalled system — it is assumed that it is more convenient for the user to choose whether he needs such an edition or not.

— Windows 11. The first major system update from Microsoft in the last six years since the release of "ten". The OS has redrawn most of the icons of standard programs and window controls, the lion's share of actions is accompanied by new animation. The main thing in the redesign is the Start menu button that has moved to a place in the centre of the lower part of the screen. Together with the operating system, Android applications debuted in the Microsoft Store. In general, the system can be considered as a big update of Windows 10 with a serious redesign of the interface, rather than a radically new OS.

As before, Windows 11 is divided into two large camps: Home and Pro. More narrowly focused versions of this operating system (Education, Enterprise, Mixed Reality, etc.) are also being released.

Windows 11 Home. The basic version of the system for use on a home computer or laptop. Supports only one processor, which can have less than 64 cores, recognizes up to 128 GB of RAM. For the initial setup of the system, it is necessary to have an active Internet connection.

Windows 11 Pro. The Pro version of Windows 11 contains a number of advanced features compared to the home edition of the OS. In particular, it has Hyper-V hardware virtualization tools, an isolated environment for the safe execution of Sandbox computer programs, advanced cyber protection functions (BitLocker, WIP), an Active Directory service for connecting to a single network with other devices (printers, servers, other computers). The system can be set up with a local account directly for your PC.

Separately, it is worth noting that earlier versions of Windows — Windows 8 (8.1) and Windows 7 — are considered completely obsolete, are extremely rare, and even in such cases they usually offer the possibility of a free upgrade to the latest editions of the OS from Microsoft.

— Linux. An operating system developed and maintained by a community of programmers around the world. Unlike Windows, it is free, but in many ways it is not inferior to it: it has its own graphical interface and a fairly extensive set of software for solving various tasks (including work ones). If you're not used to it, Linux can be somewhat difficult to learn for an inexperienced user, especially one who has dealt mainly with Windows; however, quite "friendly" and simple versions are usually used as pre-installed ones. At the same time, open source gives experienced enthusiasts ample opportunity to customize the system and write their own software. The unequivocal disadvantage of Linux is that fewer games and specialized professional “software” are available for this OS than for Windows.

— macOS. Apple's proprietary operating system, used only on Mac computers. It is considered more reliable and stable than Windows, but the reason for this is rather specific: macOS is used on a relatively limited number of devices, and it is much easier to optimize it for a specific hardware. It is also worth noting that system updates are released regularly and are available free of charge for all Macs that meet the system requirements. MacOS is well suited for "general professional" applications, including tasks like layout, design, and video editing. In addition, in recent years, the system has been increasingly integrated with the iOS mobile operating system, in particular, making it easy to transfer work tasks from a PC to a smartphone / tablet and vice versa. However, there are relatively few highly specialized software and games for macOS.

— DOS. An operating system with basic functionality, without a graphical interface and controlled via the command line. In fact, it is used only for a general check of the PC's performance and for launching installers with a full-fledged OS; it actually makes no sense to use DOS for other tasks.

More specific options for pre-installed operating systems in modern PCs include, in particular:

— Android. A system originally designed for mobile devices and optimized primarily for touch screen operation. Thus, it is rarely used in a PC, and in a rather unusual variety of devices — monoblocks (see "Type"), which are reminiscent of enlarged tablets in design (up to the possibility of holding such a device on your lap while working). However, the main reason for the low popularity is not even these technical features, but the fact that in general Android is designed more for entertainment use and is rather poorly suited for business, educational and other similar tasks.

— Windows Embedded Standard 7E 32. A specialized edition of Windows 7 (see below), used, in particular, in thin clients (see "Type"); not designed for traditional PCs.

— HP Smart Zero Technology. Another OS for thin clients — in this case, developed by HP and installed mainly in computers of this brand.

VESA mount

The presence of a VESA wall mount in the design of the PC.

As the name suggests, this mount allows you to mount your computer on a wall. It is based on a rectangular plate with four bolt holes at the corners. The plate can have a different size, depending on the suspended device — the heavier it is, the larger the mount. Initially, the VESA standard was intended for TVs and monitors, so many computers with this installation are monoblocks (see "Type"). However, this function can also be found in another type of PC — miniature nettops, the dimensions and weight of which are quite suitable for hanging on the wall.

In general, wall placement is convenient mainly in cases where it is impossible or difficult to install a computer on a table. On the other hand, such situations are not so common, and the wall mounting itself is associated with additional troubles. Therefore, there are few VESA mount configurations on the market.

Material

— Steel. The most popular desktop case material (see "Type"), used in all price ranges of desktop PCs. This is due to the relatively low cost and good strength of steel, which makes it suitable for fixing rather massive parts in the case (motherboards, hard drives, video cards with powerful cooling systems, etc.). However steel has a rather large weight, but in this case this drawback is not critical. But for monoblocks and nettops, the design features of which allow the widespread use of plastic, steel cases are a sign of a high-end model.

— Plastic. For classic desktop PC cases, plastic is poorly suited due to its relatively low strength. The exceptions are individual game models (see "Type"), where this material can be used to provide an original design — plastic easily takes the most bizarre shapes; however, in such cases, special high-strength varieties are usually used, and such cases are expensive. But for monoblocks and nettops, this material, on the contrary, is very common: the strength of plastic for such cases is more than sufficient, it is cheap, light and easy to process.

— Aluminium. Aluminium is characterized by a combination of high strength with low weight, in addition, it provides the case with an aesthetic appearance and improves heat dissipation to the environment. On the other hand, such cases are very expensive. Therefore, aluminium is rarely used, mainly in premium models, and often plays the role of an image material — to empha...size the high level of the device.
Filters
Price
fromto ₴
Brands
Product type
Monitor (monoblocks)
Resolution
Panel type
Surface treatment
CPU
Processor type
CPU code name
Processor cores
CPU speed
RAM type
RAM
Max. RAM
RAM slots
Graphics card type
Graphics card series
Graphics memory
Drive type
Main drive capacity
Second drive capacity
Colour
Advanced filters
Catalog desktop PCs 2022 - new products, best sales, buy desktop PCs.